瑜珈,暑假里练出了甜头,主要是身体上的,变瘦了,走路的时候背挺直了,以前总爱出点小毛病的脖子变强壮了。父母也乐得看见这样的变化,在他们的支持下,开学之后,在市里找了个瑜珈馆继续练,终于找到了一个能持续锻炼的方式。现在慢慢的感觉到自己的精神状态也在得到改善,内心不再虚弱:)现在再看自己的the best is yet to come这篇博文,完全就是一个怨妇嘛,不知道怎么的心来血潮就写出那么一篇酸文,那不是我写那篇题目的初衷。总之,暂时来看(总是对未来不敢抱有太大的信心)我正在朝好的方向发展,看问题的方式也有了变化。扯到这,再回到文章开头提到的那三篇文章,因为最近状态还行,那三篇文章,不管之前看过没看过,这次看了之后,都有了新的领悟,能从心底接受文章传达的理念(找不出合适的字句描述,只能先暂时这么表达)。
最近这两天我在读conversations with god。大一的时候就知道这本书不错,那时候觉得自己英语太烂,没读下去。后来在网上上发现了中文版的,觉得翻译的一般,而且也没有心情去读它(主要还是精神状态不好)。现在我觉得是时候去读它了,书里有一句话,特别适合解释为什么我现在要读它:when the student is ready,the teacher will appear。我准备好了接受一些不一样东西,脱离以前的生活轨迹和乱七八糟偏执的逻辑。所以现在读书,听音乐,感受到的比以前更多,仿佛那些东西都能住到我的心里去。
过去的已经结束,新的征程还未开始,我站在过去的阴影中,憧憬着未来,现在是一无所有的尴尬。在尴尬中挺立,行进,期待现状能一点点的好起来。The Best Is Yet To Come!
洞察生命 如痛楚 如旷野
Thank you, Chancellor, and good morning. I’d like to join Chancellor Renick in welcoming all of you to the 114th commencement exercises of North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University. My fellow job seekers: I am honored to be among the first to congratulate you on completing your years at North Carolina A&T. But all of you should know: as Mother’s Day gifts go, this one is going to be tough to beat in the years ahead.
The purpose of a commencement speaker is to dispense wisdom. But the older I get, the more I realize that the most important wisdom I’ve learned in life has come from my mother and my father. Before we go any further, let’s hear it one more time for your mothers and mother figures, fathers and father figures, family, and friends in the audience today.
When I first received the invitation to speak here, I was the CEO of an $80 billion Fortune 11 company with 145,000 employees in 178 countries around the world. I held that job for nearly six years. It was also a company that hired its fair share of graduates from North Carolina A&T. You could always tell who they were. For some reason, they were the ones that had stickers on their desks that read, “Beat the Eagles.”But as you may have heard, I don’t have that job anymore. After the news of my departure broke, I called the school, and asked: do you still want me to come and be your commencement speaker? Chancellor Renick put my fears to rest. He said, “Carly, if anything, you probably have more in common with these students now than you did before.” And he’s right. After all, I’ve been working on my resume. I’ve been lining up my references. I bought a new interview suit. If there are any recruiters here, I’ll be free around 11. I want to thank you for having me anyway. This is the first public appearance I’ve made since I left HP. I wanted very much to be here because this school has always been set apart by something that I’ve believed very deeply; something that takes me back to the earliest memories I have in life.
One day at church, my mother gave me a small coaster with a saying on it. During my entire childhood, I kept this saying in front of me on a small desk in my room. In fact, I can still show you that coaster today. It says: “What you are is God’s gift to you. What you make of yourself is your gift to God” Those words have had a huge impact on me to this day. What this school and I believe in very deeply is that when we think about our lives, we shouldn’t be limited by other people’s stereotypes or bigotry. Instead, we should be motivated by our own sense of possibility. We should be motivated by our own sense of accomplishment. We should be motivated by what we believe we can become. Jesse Jackson has taught us; Ronald McNair taught us; the Greensboro Four taught us; that the people who focus on possibilities achieve much more in life than people who focus on limitations.
The question for all of you today is: how will you define what you make of yourself?
To me, what you make of yourself is actually two questions. There’s the “you” that people see on the outside. And that’s how most people will judge you, because it’s all they can see ?what you become in life, whether you were made President of this, or CEO of that, the visible you.But then, there’s the invisible you, the “you” on the inside. That’s the person that only you and God can see. For 25 years, when people have asked me for career advice, what I always tell them is don’t give up what you have inside. Never sell your soul ?because no one can ever pay you back.
What I mean by not selling your soul is don’t be someone you’re not, don’t be less than you are, don’t give up what you believe, because whatever the consequences that may seem scary or bad — whatever the consequences of staying true to yourself are — they are much better than the consequences of selling your soul.
You have been tested mightily in your life to get to this moment. And all of you know much better than I d from the moment you leave this campus, you will be tested. You will be tested because you won’t fit some people’s pre-conceived notions or stereotypes of what you’re supposed to be, of who you’re supposed to be. People will have stereotypes of what you can or can’t do, of what you will or won’t do, of what you should or shouldn’t do. But they only have power over you if you let them have power over you. They can only have control if you let them have control, if you give up what’s inside.
I speak from experience. I’ve been there. I’ve been there, in admittedly vastly different ways — and in many ways, in the fears in my heart, exactly the same places. The truth is I’ve struggled to have that sense of control since the day I left college. I was afraid the day I graduated from college. I was afraid of what people would think. Afraid I couldn’t measure up. I was afraid of making the wrong choices. I was afraid of disappointing the people who had worked so hard to send me to college.
I had graduated with a degree in medieval history and philosophy. If you had a job that required knowledge of Copernicus or 12th Century European monks, I was your person. But that job market wasn’t very strong. So, I was planning to go to law school, not because it was a lifelong dream ?because I thought it was expected of me. Because I realized that I could never be the artist my mother was, so I would try to be the lawyer my father was. So, I went off to law school. For the first three months, I barely slept. I had a blinding headache every day. And I can tell you exactly which shower tile I was looking at in my parent’s bathroom on a trip home when it hit me like a lightning bolt. This is my life. I can do what I want. I have control. I walked downstairs and said, “I quit.”
I will give my parents credit in some ways. That was 1976. They could have said, “Oh well, you can get married.” Instead, they said, “We’re worried that you’ll never amount to anything.” It took me a while to prove them wrong. My first job was working for a brokerage firm. I had a title. It was not “VP.” It was “receptionist.” I answered phones, I typed, I filed. I did that for a year. And then, I went and lived in Italy, teaching English to Italian businessmen and their families. I discovered that I liked business. I liked the pragmatism of it; the pace of it. Even though it hadn’t been my goal, I became a businessperson.
I like big challenges, and the career path I chose for myself at the beginning was in one of the most male-dominated professions in America. I went to work for AT&T. It didn’t take me long to realize that there were many people there who didn’t have my best interests at heart. I began my career as a first level sales person within AT&T’s long lines department. Now, “long lines” is what we used to call the long distance business, but I used to refer to the management team at AT&T as the “42 longs” ?which was their suit size, and all those suits ?and faces ?looked the same.
I’ll never forget the first time my boss at the time introduced me to a client. With a straight face, he said “this is Carly Fiorina, our token bimbo.” I laughed, I did my best to dazzle the client, and then I went to the boss when the meeting was over and said, “You will never do that to me again.” In those early days, I was put in a program at the time called the Management Development Program. It was sort of an accelerated up-or-out program, and I was thrown into the middle of a group of all male sales managers who had been there quite a long time, and they thought it was their job to show me a thing or two. A client was coming to town and we had decided that we were getting together for lunch to introduce me to this customer who was important to one of my accounts.
Now the day before this meeting was to occur, one of my male colleagues came to me and said, “You know, Carly, I’m really sorry. I know we’ve had this planned for a long time, but this customer has a favorite restaurant here in Washington, D.C., and they really want to go to that restaurant, and we need to do what the customer wants, and so I don’t think you’ll be able to join us.””Why is that?” I asked. Well, the restaurant was called the Board Room. Now, the Board Room back then was a restaurant on Vermont Avenue in Washington, D.C., and it was a strip club. In fact, it was famous because the young women who worked there would wear these completely see-through baby doll negligees, and they would dance on top of the tables while the patrons ate lunch.The customer wanted to go there, and so my male colleagues were going there. So I thought about it for about two hours. I remember sitting in the ladies room thinking, “Oh God, what am I going to do? And finally I came back and said, “You know, I hope it won’t make you too uncomfortable, but I think I’m going to come to lunch anyway.”
Now, I have to tell you I was scared to death. So the morning arrived when I had to go to the Board Room and meet my client, and I chose my outfit carefully. I dressed in my most conservative suit. I carried a briefcase like a shield of honor. I got in a cab. When I told the taxi driver where I wanted to go he whipped around in his seat and said, “You’re kidding right?” I think he thought I was a new act. In any event, I arrived, I got out, I took a deep breath, I straightened my bow tie, and went in the door – and you have to picture this – I go into the door, there’s a long bar down one side, there’s a stage right in front of me, and my colleagues are sitting way on the other side of the room. And there’s a live act going on the stage. The only way I could get to them was to walk along that stage. I did. I looked like a complete idiot. I sat down, we had lunch. Advertisement
Now, there are two ends to that story. One is that my male colleagues never did that to me again. But the other end to the story, which I still find inspiring, is that all throughout lunch they kept trying to get those young women to dance in their negligees on top of our table — and every one of those young women came over, looked the situation over and said, “Not until the lady leaves.”
It even followed me to HP. As you may know, the legend of HP is that it began in a garage. When I took over, we launched a get-back-to-basics campaign we called “the rules of the garage.” A fellow CEO at a competitor saw that and decided to do a skit about me. In front of the entire financial analyst and media community, he had an actress come out with blond hair and long red nails and flashy clothes, and had a garage fall on her head. It made big headlines locally. It made me feel a lot like the “token bimbo” all over again.
I know all of you have your own stories. When you challenge other people’s ideas of who or how you should be, they may try to diminish and disgrace you. It can happen in small ways in hidden places, or in big ways on a world stage. You can spend a lifetime resenting the tests, angry about the slights and the injustices. Or, you can rise above it. People’s ideas and fears can make them small ?but they cannot make you small. People’s prejudices can diminish them ?but they cannot diminish you. Small-minded people can think they determine your worth. But only you can determine your worth.
At every step along the way, your soul will be tested. Every test you pass will make you stronger.Sometimes, there are consequences to not selling your soul. Sometimes, there are consequences to staying true to what you believe. And sometimes, those consequences are very difficult. But as long as you understand the consequences and accept the consequences, you are not only stronger as a result, you’re more at peace.
.Many people have asked me how I feel now that I’ve lost my job. The truth is, I’m proud of the life I’ve lived so far, and though I’ve made my share of mistakes, I have no regrets. The worst thing I could have imagined happened. I lost my job in the most public way possible, and the press had a field day with it all over the world. And guess what? I’m still here. I am at peace and my soul is intact. I could have given it away and the story would be different. But I heard the word of Scripture in my head: “What benefit will it be to you if you gain the whole world, but lose your soul?”
When people have stereotypes of what you can’t do, show them what you can do. When they have stereotypes of what you won’t do, show them what you will do. Every time you pass these tests, you learn more about yourself. Every time you resist someone else’s smaller notion of who you really are, you test your courage and your endurance. Each time you endure, and stay true to yourself, you become stronger and better.
I do not know any of you personally. But as a businessperson and a former CEO, I know that people who have learned to overcome much can achieve more than people who’ve never been tested. And I do know that this school has prepared you well. After all, North Carolina A&T graduates more African Americans with engineering degrees than any other school in the United States. It graduates more African American technology professionals than any other school. It graduates more African American women who go into careers in science, math, and technology than any other school. Your motto is right: North Carolina A&T is truly a national resource and a local treasure. And Aggie Pride is not just a slogan ?it’s a hard-earned fact!
Never sell your education short. And the fact that this school believed in you means you should never sell yourself short. What I have learned in 25 years of managing people is that everyone possesses more potential than they realize. Living life defined by your own sense of possibility, not by others notions of limitations, is the path to success.
Starting today, you are one of the most promising things America has to offer: you are an Aggie with a degree.
My hope is that you live life defined by your own sense of possibility, your own sense of worth, your own sense of your soul. Define yourself for yourself, not by how others are going to define you ?and then stick to it. Find your own internal compass. I use the term compass, because what does a compass do? When the winds are howling, and the storm raging, and the sky is so cloudy you have nothing to navigate by, a compass tells you where true North is. And I think when you are in a lonely situation, you have to rely on that compass. Who am I? What do I believe? Do I believe I am doing the right thing for the right reason in the best way that I can? Sometimes, that’s all you have. And always, it will be enough.
Most people will judge you by what they see on the outside. Only you and God will know what’s on the inside. But at the end of your life, if people ask you what your greatest accomplishment was, my guess is, it will be something that happened inside you, that no one else ever saw, something that had nothing to do with outside success, and everything to do with how you decide to live in the world.
What you are today is God’s gift to you. What you make of yourself is your gift to God. He is waiting for that gift right now. Make it something extraordinary.
This is the text of the Commencement address by Steve Jobs, CEO of Apple Computer and of Pixar Animation Studios, delivered on June 12, 2005.
I am honored to be with you today at your commencement from one of the finest universities in the world. I never graduated from college. Truth be told, this is the closest I’ve ever gotten to a college graduation. Today I want to tell you three stories from my life. That’s it. No big deal. Just three stories.
The first story is about connecting the dots.
I dropped out of Reed College after the first 6 months, but then stayed around as a drop-in for another 18 months or so before I really quit. So why did I drop out?
It started before I was born. My biological mother was a young, unwed college graduate student, and she decided to put me up for adoption. She felt very strongly that I should be adopted by college graduates, so everything was all set for me to be adopted at birth by a lawyer and his wife. Except that when I popped out they decided at the last minute that they really wanted a girl. So my parents, who were on a waiting list, got a call in the middle of the night asking: “We have an unexpected baby boy; do you want him?” They said: “Of course.” My biological mother later found out that my mother had never graduated from college and that my father had never graduated from high school. She refused to sign the final adoption papers. She only relented a few months later when my parents promised that I would someday go to college.
And 17 years later I did go to college. But I naively chose a college that was almost as expensive as Stanford, and all of my working-class parents’ savings were being spent on my college tuition. After six months, I couldn’t see the value in it. I had no idea what I wanted to do with my life and no idea how college was going to help me figure it out. And here I was spending all of the money my parents had saved their entire life. So I decided to drop out and trust that it would all work out OK. It was pretty scary at the time, but looking back it was one of the best decisions I ever made. The minute I dropped out I could stop taking the required classes that didn’t interest me, and begin dropping in on the ones that looked interesting.
It wasn’t all romantic. I didn’t have a dorm room, so I slept on the floor in friends’ rooms, I returned coke bottles for the 5¢ deposits to buy food with, and I would walk the 7 miles across town every Sunday night to get one good meal a week at the Hare Krishna temple. I loved it. And much of what I stumbled into by following my curiosity and intuition turned out to be priceless later on. Let me give you one example:
Reed College at that time offered perhaps the best calligraphy instruction in the country. Throughout the campus every poster, every label on every drawer, was beautifully hand calligraphed. Because I had dropped out and didn’t have to take the normal classes, I decided to take a calligraphy class to learn how to do this. I learned about serif and san serif typefaces, about varying the amount of space between different letter combinations, about what makes great typography great. It was beautiful, historical, artistically subtle in a way that science can’t capture, and I found it fascinating.
None of this had even a hope of any practical application in my life. But ten years later, when we were designing the first Macintosh computer, it all came back to me. And we designed it all into the Mac. It was the first computer with beautiful typography. If I had never dropped in on that single course in college, the Mac would have never had multiple typefaces or proportionally spaced fonts. And since Windows just copied the Mac, its likely that no personal computer would have them. If I had never dropped out, I would have never dropped in on this calligraphy class, and personal computers might not have the wonderful typography that they do. Of course it was impossible to connect the dots looking forward when I was in college. But it was very, very clear looking backwards ten years later.
Again, you can’t connect the dots looking forward; you can only connect them looking backwards. So you have to trust that the dots will somehow connect in your future. You have to trust in something — your gut, destiny, life, karma, whatever. This approach has never let me down, and it has made all the difference in my life.
My second story is about love and loss.
I was lucky — I found what I loved to do early in life. Woz and I started Apple in my parents garage when I was 20. We worked hard, and in 10 years Apple had grown from just the two of us in a garage into a $2 billion company with over 4000 employees. We had just released our finest creation — the Macintosh — a year earlier, and I had just turned 30. And then I got fired. How can you get fired from a company you started? Well, as Apple grew we hired someone who I thought was very talented to run the company with me, and for the first year or so things went well. But then our visions of the future began to diverge and eventually we had a falling out. When we did, our Board of Directors sided with him. So at 30 I was out. And very publicly out. What had been the focus of my entire adult life was gone, and it was devastating.
I really didn’t know what to do for a few months. I felt that I had let the previous generation of entrepreneurs down – that I had dropped the baton as it was being passed to me. I met with David Packard and Bob Noyce and tried to apologize for screwing up so badly. I was a very public failure, and I even thought about running away from the valley. But something slowly began to dawn on me — I still loved what I did. The turn of events at Apple had not changed that one bit. I had been rejected, but I was still in love. And so I decided to start over.
I didn’t see it then, but it turned out that getting fired from Apple was the best thing that could have ever happened to me. The heaviness of being successful was replaced by the lightness of being a beginner again, less sure about everything. It freed me to enter one of the most creative periods of my life.
During the next five years, I started a company named NeXT, another company named Pixar, and fell in love with an amazing woman who would become my wife. Pixar went on to create the worlds first computer animated feature film, Toy Story, and is now the most successful animation studio in the world. In a remarkable turn of events, Apple bought NeXT, I returned to Apple, and the technology we developed at NeXT is at the heart of Apple’s current renaissance. And Laurene and I have a wonderful family together.
I’m pretty sure none of this would have happened if I hadn’t been fired from Apple. It was awful tasting medicine, but I guess the patient needed it. Sometimes life hits you in the head with a brick. Don’t lose faith. I’m convinced that the only thing that kept me going was that I loved what I did. You’ve got to find what you love. And that is as true for your work as it is for your lovers. Your work is going to fill a large part of your life, and the only way to be truly satisfied is to do what you believe is great work. And the only way to do great work is to love what you do. If you haven’t found it yet, keep looking. Don’t settle. As with all matters of the heart, you’ll know when you find it. And, like any great relationship, it just gets better and better as the years roll on. So keep looking until you find it. Don’t settle.
My third story is about death.
When I was 17, I read a quote that went something like: “If you live each day as if it was your last, someday you’ll most certainly be right.” It made an impression on me, and since then, for the past 33 years, I have looked in the mirror every morning and asked myself: “If today were the last day of my life, would I want to do what I am about to do today?” And whenever the answer has been “No” for too many days in a row, I know I need to change something.
Remembering that I’ll be dead soon is the most important tool I’ve ever encountered to help me make the big choices in life. Because almost everything — all external expectations, all pride, all fear of embarrassment or failure – these things just fall away in the face of death, leaving only what is truly important. Remembering that you are going to die is the best way I know to avoid the trap of thinking you have something to lose. You are already naked. There is no reason not to follow your heart.
About a year ago I was diagnosed with cancer. I had a scan at 7:30 in the morning, and it clearly showed a tumor on my pancreas. I didn’t even know what a pancreas was. The doctors told me this was almost certainly a type of cancer that is incurable, and that I should expect to live no longer than three to six months. My doctor advised me to go home and get my affairs in order, which is doctor’s code for prepare to die. It means to try to tell your kids everything you thought you’d have the next 10 years to tell them in just a few months. It means to make sure everything is buttoned up so that it will be as easy as possible for your family. It means to say your goodbyes.
I lived with that diagnosis all day. Later that evening I had a biopsy, where they stuck an endoscope down my throat, through my stomach and into my intestines, put a needle into my pancreas and got a few cells from the tumor. I was sedated, but my wife, who was there, told me that when they viewed the cells under a microscope the doctors started crying because it turned out to be a very rare form of pancreatic cancer that is curable with surgery. I had the surgery and I’m fine now.
This was the closest I’ve been to facing death, and I hope its the closest I get for a few more decades. Having lived through it, I can now say this to you with a bit more certainty than when death was a useful but purely intellectual concept:
No one wants to die. Even people who want to go to heaven don’t want to die to get there. And yet death is the destination we all share. No one has ever escaped it. And that is as it should be, because Death is very likely the single best invention of Life. It is Life’s change agent. It clears out the old to make way for the new. Right now the new is you, but someday not too long from now, you will gradually become the old and be cleared away. Sorry to be so dramatic, but it is quite true.
Your time is limited, so don’t waste it living someone else’s life. Don’t be trapped by dogma — which is living with the results of other people’s thinking. Don’t let the noise of others’ opinions drown out your own inner voice. And most important, have the courage to follow your heart and intuition. They somehow already know what you truly want to become. Everything else is secondary.
When I was young, there was an amazing publication called The Whole Earth Catalog, which was one of the bibles of my generation. It was created by a fellow named Stewart Brand not far from here in Menlo Park, and he brought it to life with his poetic touch. This was in the late 1960’s, before personal computers and desktop publishing, so it was all made with typewriters, scissors, and polaroid cameras. It was sort of like Google in paperback form, 35 years before Google came along: it was idealistic, and overflowing with neat tools and great notions.
Stewart and his team put out several issues of The Whole Earth Catalog, and then when it had run its course, they put out a final issue. It was the mid-1970s, and I was your age. On the back cover of their final issue was a photograph of an early morning country road, the kind you might find yourself hitchhiking on if you were so adventurous. Beneath it were the words: “Stay Hungry. Stay Foolish.” It was their farewell message as they signed off. Stay Hungry. Stay Foolish. And I have always wished that for myself. And now, as you graduate to begin anew, I wish that for you.
Stay Hungry. Stay Foolish.
Thank you all very much.
算法是计算机科学领域最重要的基石之一，但却受到了国内一些程序员的冷落。许多学生看到一些公司在招聘时要求的编程语言五花八门，就产生了一种误解，认为 学计算机就是学各种编程语言，或者认为，学习最新的语言、技术、标准就是最好的铺路方法。其实，大家被这些公司误导了。编程语言虽然该学，但是学习计算机 算法和理论更重要，因为计算机语言和开发平台日新月异，但万变不离其宗的是那些算法和理论，例如数据结构、算法、编译原理、计算机体系结构、关系型数据库 原理等等。在“开复学生网”上，有位同学生动地把这些基础课程比拟为“内功”，把新的语言、技术、标准比拟为“外功”。整天赶时髦的人最后只懂得招式，没 有功力，是不可能成为高手的。
当我在1980年转入计算机科学系时，还没有多少人的专业方向是计算机科学。有许多其他系的人嘲笑我们说：“知道为什么只有你们系要加一个 ‘科学’，而没有‘物理科学系’或‘化学科学系’吗？因为人家是真的科学,不需要画蛇添足，而你们自己心虚，生怕不‘科学’，才这样欲盖弥彰。” 其实，这点他们彻底弄错了。真正学懂计算机的人（不只是“编程匠”）都对数学有相当的造诣，既能用科学家的严谨思维来求证，也能用工程师的务实手段来解决 问题——而这种思维和手段的最佳演绎就是“算法”。
记得我读博时写的Othello对弈软件获得了世界冠军。当时，得第二名的人认为我是靠侥幸才打赢他，不服气地问我的程序平均每秒能搜索多少步棋，当他发 现我的软件在搜索效率上比他快60多倍时，才彻底服输。为什么在同样的机器上，我可以多做60倍的工作呢？这是因为我用了一个最新的算法，能够把一个指数 函数转换成四个近似的表，只要用常数时间就可得到近似的答案。在这个例子中，是否用对算法才是能否赢得世界冠军的关键。
还记得1988年贝尔实验室副总裁亲自来访问我的学校，目的就是为了想了解为什么他们的语音识别系统比我开发的慢几十倍，而且，在扩大至大词汇系统后，速 度差异更有几百倍之多。他们虽然买了几台超级计算机，勉强让系统跑了起来，但这么贵的计算资源让他们的产品部门很反感，因为“昂贵”的技术是没有应用前景 的。在与他们探讨的过程中，我惊讶地发现一个O(n*m)的动态规划（dynamic programming）居然被他们做成了O(n*n*m)。更惊讶的是，他们还为此发表了不少文章，甚至为自己的算法起了一个很特别的名字，并将算法提 名到一个科学会议里，希望能得到大奖。当时，贝尔实验室的研究员当然绝顶聪明，但他们全都是学数学、物理或电机出身，从未学过计算机科学或算法，才犯了这 么基本的错误。我想那些人以后再也不会嘲笑学计算机科学的人了吧!
有人也许会说：“今天计算机这么快，算法还重要吗?”其实永远不会有太快的计算机，因为我们总会想出新的应用。虽然在摩尔定律的作用下，计算机的计算能力 每年都在飞快增长，价格也在不断下降。可我们不要忘记，需要处理的信息量更是呈指数级的增长。现在每人每天都会创造出大量数据（照片，视频，语音，文本等 等）。日益先进的记录和存储手段使我们每个人的信息量都在爆炸式的增长。互联网的信息流量和日志容量也在飞快增长。在科学研究方面，随着研究手段的进步， 数据量更是达到了前所未有的程度。无论是三维图形、海量数据处理、机器学习、语音识别，都需要极大的计算量。在网络时代，越来越多的挑战需要靠卓越的算法 来解决。
问题又来了，如果格子大小一样，那么绝大多数结果都可能出现在市中心的一个格子里，而郊区的格子里只有极少的结果。在这种情况下，我们应该把市中心多分出 几个格子。更进一步，格子应该是一个“树结构”，最顶层是一个大格——整个城市，然后逐层下降，格子越来越小，这样有利于用户进行精确搜索 ——如果在最底层的格子里搜索结果不多，用户可以逐级上升，放大搜索范围。
上述算法对咖啡馆的例子很实用，但是它具有通用性吗？答案是否定的。把咖啡馆抽象一下，它是一个点”，如果要搜索一个“面”该怎么办呢？比如，用户想去一 个水库玩，而一个水库有好几个入口，那么哪一个离用户最近呢？这个时候，上述“树结构”就要改成“r-tree”,因为树中间的每一个节点都是一个范围， 一个有边界的范围（参考：http://www.cs.umd.edu/~hjs/rtrees/index.html）。
在这些的应用中，哪怕是最基本的问题都会给传统的计算带来很大的挑战。例如，每天都有十亿以上的用户访问Google的网站，使用 Google的服务，也产生很多很多的日志（Log）。因为Log每分每秒都在飞速增加，我们必须有聪明的办法来进行处理。我曾经在面试中问过关于如何对 log进行一些分析处理的问题，有很多面试者的回答虽然在逻辑上正确，但在实际应用中是几乎不可行的。按照他们的算法，即便用上几万台机器，我们的处理速 度都跟不上数据产生的速度。
首先，在网络时代，就算有最好的算法，也要能在并行计算的环境下执行。在Google的数据中心，我们使用的是超大的并行计算机。但传统的并行算法运行 时，效率会在增加机器数量后迅速降低，也就是说，十台机器如果有五倍的效果，增加到一千台时也许就只有几十倍的效果。这种事倍功半的代价是没有哪家公司可 以负担得起的。而且，在许多并行算法中，只要一个结点犯错误，所有计算都会前功尽弃。
Google最资深的计算机科学家Jeff Dean认识到， Google 所需的绝大部分数据处理都可以归结为一个简单的并行算法：Map and Reduce（http://labs.google.com/papers/mapreduce.html）。这个算法能够在很多种计算中达到相当高的 效率，而且是可扩展的（也就是说，一千台机器就算不能达到一千倍的效果，至少也可以达到几百倍的效果）。Map and Reduce的另外一大特色是它可以利用大批廉价的机器组成功能强大的server farm。最后，它的容错性能异常出色，就算一个server farm里面的机器down掉一半，整个farm依然能够运行。正是因为这个天才的认识,才有了Map and Reduce算法。借助该算法，Google几乎能无限地增加计算量，与日新月异的互联网应用一同成长。
举一个计算机领域外的例子：在高能物理研究方面，很多实验每秒钟都产生几个TB的数据量。但因为处理能力和存储能力的不足，科学家不得不把绝大部分未经处 理的数据丢弃掉。可大家要知道，新元素的信息很有可能就藏在我们来不及处理的数据里面。同样的，在其他任何领域里，算法都可以改变人类的生活。例如人类基 因的研究，就可能因为算法而发明新的医疗方式。在国家安全领域，有效的算法可能避免下一个911的发生。在气象方面，算法可以更好地预测未来天灾的发生， 以拯救生命。
（1）练内功。不要只花功夫学习各种流行的编程语言和工具，以及某些公司招聘广告上要求的科目。要把数据结构、算法、数据库、操作系统原理、计算机体系结 构、计算机网络，离散数学等基础课程学好。大家不妨试试高德纳所著The Art of Computer Programming里的题目，如果你能够解决其中的大部分题目，就说明你在算法方面有一定的功力了。
（2）多实战。通过编程的实战积累经验、巩固知识。很多中国大学毕业生缺乏编程和调试经验；学习C语言，考试过关就算学会了；课题项目中，只要程序能够编 译，运行，并且输入输出满足要求就算了事。这些做法是不行的。写程序的时候，大家必须多想想如何把程序写得更加精炼、高效、高质量。建议大家争取在大学四 年中积累编写十万行代码的经验。我们必须明白的是：好程序员是写出来的，不是学出来的。
（3）求实干。不要轻视任何实际工作，比如一些看似简单的编码或测试。要不懈追求对细节一丝不苟的实干作风与敬业精神。我发现不少程序员对于知识的掌握很 肤浅，不求甚解，没有好奇心，不会刨根问底。比如，学会了C++，是否了解一个对象在编译后，在汇编代码中是如何被初始化的？这个对象的各个成员在内存中 是如何存放的？当一个成员函数被调用时，编译器在汇编代码中加入了哪些额外的动作？虚函数的调用是如何实现的? 这些东西恐怕在编程语言或编译原理中都没有详细提到，只有通过踏实的实干才能真正掌握。
（4）重视数学学习。数学是思维的体操，数学无处不在。学计算机至少要学习离散数学、概率论、布尔代数、集合论和数理逻辑。这些知识并不难，但是对你未来 的工作帮助会很大。 尤其当你对一些“数学密集型”的领域如视频、图像处理等有兴趣时，这些知识将成为你手中的利器。